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The emissions of CO2 have been recognized as the main cause of climate change. As an important strategy being used to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Geological formations, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs …Feb 1, 2023 · Gas adsorption in the porous shale matrix is critical for gas-in-place (GIP) evaluation and exploration. Adsorption investigations benefit significantly from the use of molecular simulation. However, modelling adsorption in a realistic shale topology remains a constraint, and there is a need to study the adsorption behaviour using molecular models containing both organic and inorganic ... Table 2 shows the contents of the inorganic minerals in shale samples before and after ScCO 2 immersion. It was observed that the shale samples mainly contained quartz, feldspar, carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) and clay minerals. Nevertheless, the amounts of different components in the selected three samples varied …The minerals channel looks at their formation through geological processes. Discover more about minerals with articles and pictures at HowStuffWorks. Advertisement Minerals have a broad range so much so that they have their own discipline o...The three shale samples have highly distinct mineral compositions. The argillaceous and kerogen-rich shales have soft matrix phases - muscovite and kerogen, respectively. The bituminous shale, on ...Slate is a fine-grained, metamorphic rock formed by compression of sedimentary shale, mudstone, or basalt. Gray slate is common, but the rock occurs in a variety of colors, including brown, purple, green, and blue. Slate consists mainly of silicates (silicon and oxygen), phyllosilicates (potassium and aluminum silicate), and …As important constituents of shale, inorganic minerals may affect the gas adsorption in shale reservoirs because of their high specific surface area [21,45,46].Khordad 17, 1400 AP ... Keywords: X-ray diffraction; shales; mineralogy; orientation mapping; inorganic materials; high- density inclusions; computed tomography.Clay minerals were the major components of the mudstone. The mudstone mainly showed massive structure; a few showed horizontal bedding and microwave bedding (Fig. 6 B, D). The mudstone showed a gradual transition with the micritic carbonates. The shale was mainly deep gray or brownish gray and showed a deeper color than the mudstone.This is because shale formations are full of active clay minerals which can lead to hydration and swelling once encountered by the WBDFs thus destabilizing the integrity of the wellbore. To combat this, most petroleum engineers have employed different inhibitors to reduce or stop the menace posed by these active clay minerals.Molecular dynamics simulation of the surface wettability of typical minerals in shale. 2023, Geological Journal. Effect of Graphene Substrate on Melting of Cu Nanoparticles. 2022, SSRN. A molecular dynamics study on the thermal properties of carbon-based gold nanoparticles.While many people assume that one bottle of water is just like any other, that’s not exactly the case. These days, there are almost as many different kinds of bottled water as there are brands of popular sodas. In fact, the U.S.Table 2 shows the contents of the inorganic minerals in shale samples before and after ScCO 2 immersion. It was observed that the shale samples mainly contained quartz, feldspar, carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite) and clay minerals. Nevertheless, the amounts of different components in the selected three samples varied …Shale. Shale is the most abundant of all sedimentary rocks. It is composed primarily of soft clay minerals, but may include variable amounts of organic matter, calcareous material, and quartz grains. Shale may be any color, but is generally greenish gray to grayish black. It is relatively soft and has a smooth, greasy feel when freshly exposed ...Sep 30, 2015 · Identification of black shale-hosted critical element deposits in the U.S. (initial focus on the Heath Formation metalliferous oil shales in Montana); and; Evaluation of processes that form metal-enriched black shale deposits. Return to Mineral Resources Program | Geology, Geophysics, and Geochemistry Science Center In order to reveal the influences of different inherent minerals on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of oil shale, decarburization, and desilication, samples were obtained by pickling and demineralization. The influence of inherent minerals on the activation energy of oil shale at different conversion rates and the pyrolysis kinetic model were researched by the equal conversion method and ...Sep 4, 2019 · Shale lithics contain silt-sized minerals (mostly quartz) scattered in a clay mineral-dominated matrix (Figure 8C,D). The clays in shale lithics are characterized by a more wavy-planar fabric (Figure 8 D), compared with the highly crenulated morphology of smectite in bentonites and volcanic rock fragments. Therefore, in this study, we conducted nanoscopic modeling of shale nanocomposites, wherein one surface consists of type II-C kerogen and the other surface is composed of K-illite minerals. We aim to investigate the influence of water content, temperature, pressure, pore width, and rigid/flexibility of the kerogen matrix on the adsorption capacity of CH 4 in …The majority of the IR bands that appear in the mid-infrared region between 4000 to 400 cm −1 are due to mineral/inorganic components. A number of weak bands attributed to organic components in the shale rock were observed from 3000 to 2800 cm −1 and these will be discussed in more detail later.Careful XRD identification of the clay minerals involved in the shale matrix, as well as SEM/AEM analysis to characterize pore size, morphology and composition are essential preliminary steps. SEM studies in environmental or cryogenic mode would lead to a better understanding of the liquid phases coating the pore surfaces and filling the pore ...The mineral contents of the shale were tested with whole-rock “X-ray” diffraction. An X'Pert MPD PRO X-ray diffractometer produced by the Netherlands-based PANalytical Company was adopted as the analytical instrument with tube pressures ranging from 15 to 60 kV, tube flows ranging from 5 to 60 mA, and a maximum power of 3.3 kV. …Shale is primarily made from clay minerals like kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and smectite, with significant amounts of clay-sized particles of minerals like quartz, calcite, and feldspar. Small amounts of iron oxides and organic matter (sometimes converted to kerogen) are often present, as are fossils.The emissions of CO2 have been recognized as the main cause of climate change. As an important strategy being used to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Geological formations, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs …The mineral reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide gas, water, a dissolved metal ion, and dissolved chlorine. The reactions for magnesite ... "calcareous shale" or "sandstone with carbonate cement." This is valuable information. Vinegar can be used for the acid test: Vinegar can be a safe, economical and easy-to-obtain "acid" for identifying …Mineralogical Composition: Feldspathic Shale, Quartzose Shale, Micaceous Shale. Minerals: Clay minerals, Quartz. Cementing Materials. Calcareous shale . Ferruginous shale. Siliceous shale. Depositional Environment Flood Plain, Lake (away from shore), Mid-continental Shelf, Delta, Tidal Flat, Lagoon, or Deep Marine. Shale ClassificationThe microstructure of shale reservoirs refers to the distribution of mineral–organic matter, pore–fracture features, diagenetic processes, and their interrelations. The comprehensive and accurate analysis of the shale microstructure plays a critical role in formulating a reasonable development plan and optimizing measures to enhance oil or gas recovery. To explore the microstructure ...Apr 1, 2014 · Where smectite is a major or significant clay component of a shale, as in Classes 1 and 2, then the shale instability can be readily rationalized in terms of the well known swelling behaviour of the smectite minerals in water and when saturated with different cations (Mooney et al., 1952; Norrish, 1954). In addition to inorganic minerals, shale also contains a certain amount of organic matter. Based on the molecular structure of kerogen in the studied shales, the kerogen slit model was established using the excision method, as detailed in Ref. . To clarify the adsorption discrepancies between inorganic minerals and organic matter in shale, the ...Natural gas extracted from tight shale formations, such as the Marcellus Shale, represent an important and developing front in energy exploration. By fracturing ...Shahrivar 28, 1397 AP ... Mineral composition is usually the foundation in all researches about shale reservoir. Most shale mainly consists of clay and detrital minerals, ...Mordad 28, 1391 AP ... The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than ...Shale formation is a heterogeneous system consisting of complex mineral composition of meso, micro, and macro-scale pore structures [9], [10]. Shale is also heterogeneous in terms of the components within it, containing several hydrocarbons with methane being between 30 and 80% of the total hydrocarbon [11]. Like other heterogeneous porous ...The mechanical properties of the constituent minerals in shale rock are fundamental to a better knowledge of multi-scale shale behaviors. It benefits the …Shale is a lithified mud — a sedimentary rock composed mostly of clay- and silt-sized grains. There are several ways to define shale. Some definitions are rather narrow. Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute defines shale as a laminated, indurated rock with >67% clay-sized minerals 1. The intergranular pores developed in the shale samples at the contact of mineral grains (Fig. 3) show polygonal and elongated shapes with few primary pores and primarily include silt- and muddy ...Shale is a rock composed mainly of clay-size mineral grains. These tiny grains are usually clay minerals such as illite, kaolinite, and smectite. Shale usually contains other clay …Khordad 30, 1401 AP ... Secondary minerals such as gypsum and clay were formed. According to the mass transfer coefficients of major and trace elements, it was ...Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay minerals and other clay-sized particles of minerals like quartz and calcite. It is laminated and fissile, easily breaking along bedding planes. Shale forms from the deposition and compaction of clay-sized minerals in a low-energy environment.Oil shale in China mainly consists of kaolinite and mica-based clay minerals, while Estonian, Russian, and American Green River oil shales primarily consist of carbonate minerals [56]. Eseme et al. found that the Posidonia oil shale in northern Germany primarily consists mineral particles with size smaller than 2 μm, some sand grains are ...Diffusion of mineral ions in near-fracture shale during hydration (1) The remaining shale cores and each single mineral component are crushed using a high-speed crusher. The shale core particles of 6, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 100 mesh, and each single component mineral particles of 100 mesh, are screened out by a sieve mesh, as shown in Fig. 3 (a ... Shale is classified based on its mineral content. There is siliceous shale (silica), calcareous shale (calcite or dolomite), limonitic or hematitic shale (iron minerals), carbonaceous or bituminous shale (carbon compounds), and phospatic shale (phosphate). The color of shale depends on its composition.Shale is a sedimentary rock composed of very fine clay particles. Clay forms from the decomposition of the mineral feldspar. Other minerals present in shale are quartz, mica, pyrite, and organic matter.In terms of shale mineral compositions, the higher percentage of brittle minerals and the lower content of clay minerals can lead to the larger shale brittleness and greater fracturing availability. As for the mechanics properties of rocks, the commonly used characterization parameters include Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio.Among the different shale lithofacies, the mineral compositions or constituents varied greatly : 1) The detrital massive mudstone was characterized by high contents of clay minerals and detrital minerals and low contents of carbonate minerals. 2) The contents of the three mineral constituents in the homogenous massive mudstone were basically ...To most geologists, the term " acid test " means placing a drop of dilute (5% to 10%) hydrochloric acid on a rock or mineral and watching for bubbles of carbon dioxide gas to be released. The bubbles signal the presence of carbonate minerals such as calcite, dolomite, or one of the minerals listed in Table 1. ADVERTISEMENT. Shale oil is a vital alternative energy source for oil and gas and has recently received an extensive attention. Characterization of the shale oil content provides an important guiding significance for resource potential evaluation, sweet spot prediction, and development of shale oil. In this paper, the mechanism, evaluation and influencing factors of oil retention in shales are reviewed. Oil ...The mineral composition of rocks in shale is an important factor affecting wettability (Barclay and Worden, 2000). Different mineral surfaces have different adsorption effects on polar compounds, so they may have different wettability characteristics (Xi et al., 2019).The experimental conditions for influencing the SC-CO 2 treatment on microstructure and mineral constituent of shale were as follows: the treatment time was 48 h with a SC-CO 2 pressure of 7.5 MPa ...Apr 1, 2023 · The mineral composition of rocks in shale is an important factor affecting wettability (Barclay and Worden, 2000). Different mineral surfaces have different adsorption effects on polar compounds, so they may have different wettability characteristics (Xi et al., 2019). While clay minerals in shale-underlain watersheds in rainy climates are found at all depths because of their low chemical reactivity, pyrite and carbonate minerals are often chemically removed from upper layers and only found in unweathered shale at depth (Fig. 3; Brantley et al., 2013a; Wan et al., 2019; Gu et al., 2020a). For example, at …The major clay minerals include kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite. A typical shale is made of clay minerals (58%), quartz (28%), feldspar (6%), carbonate minerals (5%), and iron oxides (2%). A typical mudstone like shale is usually made up of 95% organic matter. The interesting fact about shale’s composition is that this …Sep 12, 2022 · The mean values of the clusters are 40.3 GPa, 54.0 GPa, and 72.2 GPa, respectively. The mean values represent the mean phase properties of the soft minerals, minerals with mediated stiffness, and hard minerals in shale, which correspond to clay minerals, muscovite/mineral composite, and quartz/iron-bearing minerals, respectively. In terms of shale mineral compositions, the higher percentage of brittle minerals and the lower content of clay minerals can lead to the larger shale brittleness and greater fracturing availability. As for the mechanics properties of rocks, the commonly used characterization parameters include Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio.Shahrivar 28, 1397 AP ... Mineral composition is usually the foundation in all researches about shale reservoir. Most shale mainly consists of clay and detrital minerals, ...The oil shale yield varies laterally, and may be as little as 7% for the lower layer and 4% for the upper layer. The formation is a very fine grained and laminated deposit ranging in color from dark gray to brown to black. While 60–70% of the shale consists of clay minerals, the balance is made up of organic matter.The experimental conditions for influencing the SC-CO 2 treatment on microstructure and mineral constituent of shale were as follows: the treatment time was 48 h with a SC-CO 2 pressure of 7.5 MPa ... The mean values of the clusters are 40.3 GPa, 54.The mechanical properties of the constituent minerals in In order to reveal the influences of different inherent minerals on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of oil shale, decarburization, and desilication, samples …Your body uses minerals to build bones, make hormones, and regulate your heartbeat. Read about the types of minerals and how to get them. Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs,... A shale with at least 1% carbonaceous material indicating a Organic matter in shale can be present as adsorbed component, both on internal and external surfaces of minerals or, accumulated freely at the mouth or edge of the pore spaces and, the interlayer spaces of the clay minerals (Zhu et al., 2016). The associated carbon, occurring as freely accumulated OC along with physically adsorbed OC on ... Shale rocks are frequently very heterogenous at a small scale. Standar...

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Sep 1, 2018 · Constraining mineral abundances is particularly difficult in shale due to preferred mounting ...

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Shale oil is a vital alternative energy source for oil and gas and has recently received an extensive attention. Characterization of the ...

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Mar 22, 2022 · China has abundant shale gas resources with great exploration potential, and stage progress ha...

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The large-scale exploration of shale gas in recent years has provided more new data for the study of the enrichment mechanism of sed...

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Clay minerals and organic matter are commonly developed in shale sediments, and have an important influence...

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